15 Turkish sites on the UNESCO list
15 Turkish sites on the UNESCO list After Turkey’s success last year in listing the city of Ephes in Izmir province as a UNESCO World Heritage List, the number of Turkish sites included in the list of the United Nations has reached 15.
Turkey joined the World Heritage List for the first time in 1985 with five sites: Goreme National Park, Cappadocia Rocky Sites, Grand Mosque and Diurgy Hospital, and historical districts in Istanbul, and then entered the eleven sites in the following years.
1- The Grand Mosque and the Diviği Ulu Camii ve Darüşşifası Hospital
It was founded by Prince Ahmed Shah Bin Sulaiman Shah Mingogilli in the year 626 AH, 1229 AD. The mosque and the adjacent hospital from the south occupy a rectangular area of 64 x 32 meters.
This royal style mosque can be accessed through two entrances, one from the north, and the other from the west.
There is a loophole at the southern end of the eastern façade, which today uses a window, while it was originally access to the Sultan’s shrine. There is a huge pillar built in the Ottoman period to support the cylindrical minaret located in the northwest corner.
The prayer hall consists of five wings formed by four rows of arches (arches) perpendicular to the wall of the mihrab. In each row there are four bridge struts connected to each other, also connected to the walls from east to west.
There are 25 spaces formed by 16 pillars, and these spaces are covered with domes and arches. The space in front of the mihrab is crowned by a 12-lobed dome.
The central space covered with an oval dome was provided with a snow trough. Most of the eight cellars above the eastern sides are star-shaped. The upper part of the building, as well as the western façade, were destroyed by an earthquake at the beginning of the sixteenth century, and therefore it is believed that the current oval domes have replaced the original.
The walls, minaret and upper sections are built with ornate stone blocks of various sizes, and the mihrab and window shutters are occupied by wood.
The entrances, the minbar, the mihrab, and the buttresses are decorated with flowery motifs. The northern entrance, also called the Baroque entrance, is remarkable due to the architectural ornaments, arabesques, and broad decorative hoops of the various leaves of the plant, while the western entrance.
also called the textile entrance, contains floral ornament, geometric figures, and birds images.
The eastern entrance, which was later converted into a window, is best known for its floral and engineering motifs. The wooden mihrab is covered in floral, geometric and written motifs with techniques that include kondikari art, deep carving with rounded surfaces and perforations.
The area of Dar Shifa, the king of Turan, is 32 x 24 square meters. It was built in the width of the mosque itself, and it is located next to the mosque from the south. Entry to Dar Al-Shifa from the western side.
The Anatolian School was followed by three iwans and a covered patio The building consists of two floors Its entrance is decorated with geometric and floral ornamentation on a prominent relief and deep moldings reminiscent of the properties of Gothic art.
The Grand Mosque with the Diyurji Hospital is a rare architectural monument, and its decoration contrasts with the design and style of the traditional art of the Anatolian Seljuks.
Perhaps Christian architects and teachers worked side by side with Muslim architects in this building, which was inscribed on the UNESCO list in 1985.
2- Goreme National Park and Cappadocia rocky sites
Goreme is located in the central district of Anatolia, with a population of 2,550 people.
The Goreme Valley and the suburb of mausoleums carved into the rock embrace an unparalleled witness to Byzantine art in the post-shattering of religious symbols, as well as residences and villages for cave dwellers, and the remaining subterranean cities from a traditional human habitat dating back to the fourth century.
Goreme National Park joined UNESCO list in 1985.
3- Historic areas of Istanbul
Istanbul’s historical districts are located on a peninsula surrounded by the Sea of Marmara, the Bosphorus and the Golden Horn.
These areas include the horse race arena of the Byzantine era which is now known as Sultanahmet Square, the Hagia Sophia Museum which is the most important architectural masterpiece in the history of the Middle East, and Solomon the Magnificent Mosque.
4- Hatucho is the capital of the Hittites
Hatocha is the capital of the Hittite Empire that used to cover most of contemporary Turkey. It was uncovered under the ruins of the Bogaz Koy site, north of central Anatolia, on the Black Sea.
The city is located in a mountainous area with various heights, the most important of which is the Buick Castle and Buyuk Kaya.
The city was surrounded by a first defensive wall, followed by a second wall of 8 m thick, topped by towers, and penetrated by three major gates, guarded by statues of the “Sphinx” at the southern gate and “lions” at the western gate and “warriors” at the eastern gate, and leading into the city a stone tunnel Secret 71m long, covered in stone tiles.
5- Mount Nimrod
Mount Nimrod is one of the most attractive tourist places in Turkey, with a height of 2000 meters, and the ruins of the Kingdom of Kokkajin located on its summit, and it gained its strength in the first century BC. The mountain is 40 km north of Kahta, near the city of Adi Yaman. The Mount Nimrod is part of the mountain ring of Taurus on the bank of the Euphrates. The mountain joined the UNESCO list in 1987.
6- Hierapolis. Pamukkale Springs
The warm springs of Pamukkale in Turkey, which appear in the form of white terraces are among the most famous tourist attractions in the country, and these limestone terraces were formed over millions of years, but they were subjected to human tampering in earlier periods, which lost them their bright white luster.
But the Turkish authorities have taken some measures to preserve the Pamukkale springs which mean in the Turkish language “Cotton Castle”, such as demolishing hotels surrounding the area and banning showers in these warm springs, which led to the restoration of part of its former splendor as the “Cotton Castle” wore a bright white dress. Even during the night.
Pamukkale is considered the second most famous tourist attraction in Turkey, in addition to those springs, it has many archaeological sites for the city of Hierapolis, such as the recently restored theater, a large cemetery, a temple to the god Apollo and the city gate.
7- Historic Leyton
It is reported that the city was constructed in the seventh century BC, and it bore the title “Leto” the woman who gave birth to “Zeus” which was considered by the Greeks as the god of the gods in their belief.
Ancient accounts indicate that Leto decided to escape the wrath of “Hera”, the former wife of Zeus, after she gave birth to her twins Artemis and Apollon and settled in this place.
Excavations in the area indicate that the artifacts found date from the seventh century BC. The city joined the UNESCO list in 1988.
From the eighth century until the advent of the railroad in the early twentieth century, Safranbolu formed an important station for caravans on the main trade route between East and West.
Its old mosque, baths, and Suleiman Pasha School were built in 1322 As the city reached its climax in the seventeenth century, its engineering influenced the development of civil planning for a large part of the Ottoman Empire. The city joined the UNESCO list in 1994.
The city of Troy, is an ancient historical maritime city located in Asia Minor, specifically in the Anatolia region. It was known for its immunity, richness and prosperity.
According to legend, the city gained its wealth and strength from the fact that the god Poseidon, the god of the sea, built it, and with him Apollo the god of art and poetry. The city joined the UNESCO list in 1998.
10- The Selimiye Mosque “Sultan Selim II Mosque” within its complex in Edirne
The Selimiye Mosque is a model for the well-known and rich architecture of the famous Turkish architect Mimar Sinan.
Sinan reached the summit in the world of building and construction in the Selimiye Mosque, which is considered the greatest of what was built according to the opinion of architectural experts.
He built it on the order of Sultan Selim II, who succeeded his father Suleiman the Magnificent in the rule of the Ottoman Empire. The complex is a mosque, a school, a home for readers and a house for speaking.
Sinan chose the highest hill in Edirne to be built by the mosque so that it can be seen from all over the city, and Sinan started building it in the year “976 – 1568 AD”, and he was then eighty-four years old, and finished it after six years.
Sinan covered the whole place in the mosque with one dome measuring 31.5 meters in diameter without resorting to the half domes that he had previously used in the Shahzada and Sulaymaniyah Mosque.
The dome rested on an octagonal base that was carried on eight strong pillars, and this is what we notice from the spaciousness in the place and the height in the dome.
The mosque has four minarets with a height of 70.81 meters each, which is a slender minute, and it is one of the highest minarets in the world, and each of them is located in one of the four corners of the mosque, and each of them has three balconies.
The stairs are independent, while the other two minarets each have one staircase.
The minbar of the mosque and its ablution is made of marble, and its lines were written by al-Mawlawi Hasan ibn Qarah Hasari.
With this spaciousness and greatness in creating the dome and minarets, the mosque from the inside received attention in its six-meter deep mihrab, a low-rise dome, and a pulpit carved from a single piece of stone, to testify to the craftsmanship of the period, in addition to the ceramic tiles covering the tribal walls, and a forum The Sultan is located to the north of the mihrab, and below it is a small fountain to drink water, and the dome is decorated with Qur’anic inscriptions by Mawlawi Hasan ibn Qara Hasari.
Surrounded by a courtyard covered with domes covered with domes, and in the middle of the marble Shazrawan, and thus the Selimiye Mosque is an integrated work in all structural, architectural, artistic and aesthetic aspects.
11- Chatel-Huyuk City
One of the oldest known cities is the city of Chatel-Hoyok in Anatolia in Turkey, where it dates back to before 6000 BC, and is currently located near the city of Konya, central Turkey. The city joined the UNESCO World Heritage List in 2012.
12- Jumali Kizik Village
Jumali Kezik village is located east of Bursa on the Turkish capital, Ankara, 13 km from Bursa.
It is one of the five villages on the edge of Uludag. The village is linked to the region (Osman Ghazi).
This village dates back to 700 years ago and is one of the rare villages that managed to preserve the architectural building dating back to the Ottoman era and which still maintains the traditional style of life. The village joined the World Heritage List in 2014.
13- The city of Pergamon
Pergamon, an ancient ancient city, is located near the present-day city of Bergama. The Persians and Greeks successively ruled over this city in ancient times, and then the city reached its climax when it became the capital of the Kingdom of Pergamon during the Hellenistic period under the rule of the Atalites between 281-233 BC. The city joined the World Heritage List in 2014.
14- Diyarbakir Walls and Hossal Gardens
Diyarbakir, located in southeastern Turkey, is one of the oldest ancient cities in Turkey It is surrounded by a large wall, which is the second largest wall in the world after the Great Wall of China, with a length of 5,500 meters.
This wall was built with the city and the castle that contains several towers
The walls were built on steep rocks on the eastern side, surrounded on the other side by water trenches 6 meters deep and 15 meters wide.
It is now filled with dirt The height of the main wall ranges between 8 meters and 12 meters, and its width is between 4 and 5 meters.
The walls are reinforced by 78 towers There is a gate in each of the four main directions: the Tigris Gate from the east
the Harput Gate or the mountain from the north, the Urfa Gate or Anatolia from the west
and the Mardin Gate or the Gate of the Hill from the south
while the inner fort includes a main hidden portal, the “secret gate” that leads To the bank of the Tigris River.
There are three huge towers to which the decoration was added in the Turkish era, and most of its parts have remained in good condition so far. Most of the fortress walls were built of basalt stone with limestone edges.
The city of Ephesus or Ephesus is one of the wonders of the ancient world founded by the city of Rome in the era of the ancient Ionian state, and its population reached 255 thousand, centuries before the birth, and its people qualified it to become one of the largest cities in the ancient world where Turkey was considered one of the most important countries of the ancient world in Asia Micro.
One of the most important features of the city is its main temple, which was erected on a dilapidated shrine, and is considered a favorite place for tourists when they visit the city.
Likewise, the Council of Ephesus, which is one of the seven churches mentioned in the Book of Revelation, is mentioned in the Bible. It joined the World Heritage List last year.